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The work in this study aims to carry out an in-depth analysis of PEMS data on typical issues arising from the latest worldwide trends on studying vehicle emission issues and vehicle emission model development. The focus of this analysis will be to investigate the operation of the SCR retrofit and evaluate its overall performance, to investigate the effectiveness of the LPG catalyst replacement initiative, to study the impact of road grade on emissions, to examine the potential and analyse the perspectives of implementing the Euro 6 data processing method in the city of Hong Kong and to evaluate the hybrid buses operation and performance. Furthermore, several observations on the data and the results will be made, critical conclusions will be drawn, and practical recommendations will be proposed by the project team.
The overall objective of the study is to provide European Commission with a matrix of reasons why system wide deployment of so-called eco-ITS may deliver different levels of GHG benefits from tests of deployment on single vehicles.
The work envisaged in this study aims to set up the PEMS database in Oracle database 12c according to the new database design, as well as conduct System Analysis and Design and implement a web application for performing data processing and data analysis. The new system is envisioned to utilize all PEMS-related procedures in the form of this web application, called the online management portal (or Online Portal), i.e. to act as a single platform serving all data input/output and processing, interconnect all required modules such as the data uploader and time alignment and have the new database at its core.
The objectives of the project were:
i. To improve understanding of the contribution of transport to greenhouse gas emissions in China through use of EU experience and implementation of the COPERT model.
ii. To promote cooperation in this area between EU and China experts and allow easier exchanges between EU and China policy makers on their respective transport data and policies to address the climate (and wider) impacts of transport.
iii. To support the process of developing policies to reduce transport climate and air pollution impact in China.
The main objective is to support Eurostat in identifying and evaluating suitable data and methods for assessing the impact of railway and inland waterways transport on GHG emissions. To this aim, the main requirements of the project are: i) assessment of the policy needs for statistical information on CO2 emissions by the rail and inland waterways transport sectors; ii) study and evaluation of methods and data used for the estimation of CO2 emissions by the rail and inland waterways transport sectors; iii) recommendation of suitable methods to be used by Eurostat; iv) feasibility study of extending Eurostat’s rail and inland waterways transport statistics system to accommodate the additional data needed for emission estimation; and v) extension of the published statistics for emissions by the rail and inland waterways transport sectors.
The European Commission is considering the introduction of a voluntary emission standard for passenger cars (EULES) that will deliver real-world emission levels below the most stringent current emission limits. These emission levels will have to be verified by measuring the vehicle according to the measurement protocol foreseen in the framework of the Real Drive Emissions (RDE) regulations. This project aims at developing a first understanding on the potential of EULES as well as developing the technical and legal ground for its implementation. It consists of two major objectives: i) assess the market response to such a standard, and ii) verify and demonstrate whether state-of-the-art Euro 6 cars can reach RDE levels which are below the Euro 6 emission limit values, by further optimization of their emission control systems.
The objectives of the study are to (a) assess the future requirements for vehicle emission modelling by EPD, which includes an examination of input data availability in Hong Kong, (b) conduct a detailed review of the existing vehicle emission models and new methodologies in Europe, and (c) recommend the best approach for the development of the new generation vehicle emission model specifically for Hong Kong, based on the European situation.
The main objective is to provide a technical analysis of how a representative range of N1 vehicles and technologies perform on the existing (NEDC) and the new (WLTP) type-approval procedure to enable a robust comparison of the emission values over the two tests. To this aim, approximately 8 individual vehicles will be simulated with different technology packages to model current technology variations and technology developments expected in the future. For the calibration and validation of the vehicle simulation model two representative vehicles will be tested over specific driving cycles.
The principal objective of this project is to develop a software fleet-impact assessment tool. The tool shall be able develop scenarios in order to test new policies, develop alternative approaches and assess the impacts of technological changes in the vehicle fleets and fuels in Europe, in Member States and in individual regions.
The main objective is the identification and evaluation of ‘Best Available Techniques’ (BAT) to control and reduce emissions from mobile sources. The project will provide the technical background in order to update the Guidance Document supporting the implementation of the 1999 Gothenburg Protocol of the UNECE LRTAP Convention. Main expected project achievements:
- major advances in engine/exhaust control techniques
- extend scope of pollutants (e.g. PM control)
- extend range of mobile sources covered (e.g. sea going ships, aircrafts)
- offer ‘best’ options from a range of proven (technical and non-technical) measures to reduce pollutant emissions from mobile sources
The main objective is to provide a technical analysis of how a representative range of M1 vehicles and technologies perform on the existing (NEDC) and the new (WLTP) type-approval procedure to enable a robust comparison of the emission values over the two tests. To this aim, approximately 20 individual vehicles will be simulated with different technology packages to model current technology variations and technology developments expected in the future. For the calibration and validation of the vehicle simulation model a number of vehicles will be tested over specific driving cycles.
The European Commission Proposal COM (2010) 542 will form the basis of a new regulation introducing emission standards for L-category vehicles. This Communication Document introduces the need of an environmental study to be conducted in order to ‘confirm’ or, even possibly, review the emission standard requirements foreseen for the 2020/2021 emission step. Thus, the main objective of this study was to assist ACEM in providing technical input in the process of such an environmental study so that the planning, execution, and outcome of this environmental study offer reliable and unprejudiced conclusions related to a fair regulation of future L-category vehicles.
The objective is to develop an integrated application with a built-in road transport model for passenger cars and light commercial vehicles, capable of evaluating different fleet structure scenarios in order to reach specific CO2 targets and estimate related costs, while emphasizing on electrification approaches.
The main objective was to provide technical support to JRC/IET for the use of COPERT in the context of the review of the European evaporative emission test procedure. The work performed included: the modifications introduced to the COPERT model for estimating the benefits of a revised procedure, provision of assistance to JRC for defining the different scenarios, running of the model.
A measurement programme will be carried out to assess the effects of ageing commercial biodiesel fuels on engine components.
The objective is to maintain and update the air pollutant emissions database and the air quality management system (AQMS) that have been developed in the framework of a previous contract. To this aim, the relevant activity data will be collected in order to create the 2011 inventory and to enable the temporal and spatial allocation of emissions in the web GIS application. Output of the AQMS will be validated on a daily basis against measurements from monitoring stations. Emission reduction scenarios for the years 2020, 2030 and 2050 will be also created. Training of the DLI personnel on the use of the above tools is also foreseen.
The aim of the project is developing a fine particle sensor suitable for use as a test probe for diesel-powered vehicles in inspection and maintenance facilities. It will incorporate a data interface with a software application to acquire, store and process collected information and output a result.
The principal objective of this project is to supply DG CLIMA with a general update of the historical transport data for use in the various modelling tools used by the European Commission for policy assessment purposes. The economic conditions in Europe have changed considerably in recent years, and some of the assumptions implicit in these datasets (e.g. economic growth, turnover of stock, etc.) may no longer be valid and should also therefore be re-examined. The main requirement is collection of country-specific data on the various transport modes for each of the EU27 Member States, as well as for Norway, Switzerland and the EU candidate countries (Croatia, FYROM, Iceland and Turkey).
This project aims to support the European Commission in the review of the Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution and its related legal instruments on ambient air quality and national emission ceilings through modelling of emission baselines and scenarios for different policy options and their related impacts.
The objective is to develop an innovative product focusing on the road transport sector and more specifically on intelligent transport systems. To this aim, a software tool will be developed which will estimate pollutant emission levels and the energy consumption for the road network of Thessaloniki in real-time. The results will be integrated on geographical layers in order to be displayed in GPS navigation systems and in web-based applications.
The goal of the project is to assess options and to develop a method to measure and monitor the CO2 emissions of N1 multi-stage vehicles (MSV).
The main objective of the task 2 (permitted summer petrol vapour pressure) of this study was to investigate the implications of producing petrol to a lower vapour pressure. To this aim, (a) the technical, commercial, environmental and operational implications were identified, (b) the costs and benefits throughout the lifecycle of the fuel were assessed (c) the compatibility of lower summer vapour pressure petrol with the operation of the petrol vehicle fleet has been assessed, (d) the practical and technical obstacles to the supply, storage and use of petrol with lower vapour pressure have been assessed, (e) a comprehensive cost-benefit assessment of a lowering of the maximum summer vapour pressure for petrol has been carried out, and (f) recommendations as to whether there is a summer petrol vapour pressure lower than the present value that can be considered more optimal were provided.
The main objective of this study is to parameterize the fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of passenger cars and light-duty vehicles and all possible fuels in relation to the main influencing factors, like vehicle weight, engine power, aerodynamics, etc. To this aim, the database on which the analyses will be performed will be selected, an appropriate methodology and calculation tool will be developed and validated and the parameterisation results will be made available for use in emission inventorying tools.
An evaluation of the current TREMOVE Graphical User Interface functionalities will be performed. Additional functionalities will be designed and integrated in the model and the model core, currently based on TREMOVE v.3.1, will be updated to v.3.3.
The main objectives of this framework contract are to develop and maintain transport and environment indicators and best practices; assess the environmental constraints and benefits of clean/low carbon transport technologies; provide regular updates on transport and environment indicators, including transport subsidies and fiscal instruments; assess the pressures associated with the demand for transport on the environment including energy efficiency and demand-side policies, choice of fuels, climate change mitigation, air pollution, noise and the costs, benefits and tradeoffs concerning environmental aspects, such as water and biodiversity, of these pathways.
The aim of this project was to estimate the uncertainty of the TREMOVE output and its sensitivity to the input variables. For the analysis, United Kingdom was examined as a test case and TREMOVE v3.3.1 was used. The study identified 14 variables that were found to be most important for the uncertainty of the model output. It also identified linear associations between output and input variables in several instances. Elasticities between intermodal shifts and other choices (vehicle types, fuels, etc.) appeared limited. Choices to decrease model uncertainty include better estimates for key input variables and simplification of the model structure.
Appropriate scenarios were setup using version 3.1 of the TREMOVE model, to assess the consequences on emissions and costs of postponing the implementation date of EURO VI emission limit values for Heavy Duty Vehicles by two years, i.e. from 2013 to 2015.
Four scenarios requested by ACEM on future emission standards for mopeds and motorcycles were simulated. Scenario 1 assumes the introduction of Euro 4 (2012) and Euro 5 (2015) motorcycles. Scenario 2 in addition considers the introduction of Euro 4 mopeds in 2015. Finally, two scenarios were executed where all conventional motorcycles and mopeds are replaced with new ones in the year 2012. The simulations showed that significant reductions may be achieved with the scenarios proposed. However, stabilization of PTW contribution to the 2007 level can be only achieved with old vehicle replacement.
The main objectives of this project was to evaluate the uncertainty linked with the various input parameters of the COPERT 4 model, assess the uncertainty of road transport emissions in two test cases at national level and include these uncertainty estimates in the COPERT 4 model. Furthermore, this information has been used to prepare guidance on the assessment of uncertainty for the Tier 3 methods (COPERT 4) and to provide uncertainty estimates for the Tier 2 method, to be included in the road transport chapter of the Atmospheric Emissions Inventory Guidebook.
The main objectives of the project is to critically review and assess the technical feasibility of positive-ignition and compression-ignition OBD monitoring techniques and hardware availability to establish by end-2010 and collect driving data from EU and US vehicles in order to provide a database of in-field OBD failures and frequency of such OBD failures. Based on the assessment of technical feasibility, likely scenarios for Euro 6 OBD thresholds will be developed and an analysis of the cost-effectiveness of various OBD threshold scenarios will be conducted.
New emission factors for evaporative emissions from diesel vehicles have been developed based on the results of relevant mini-SHED tests. An emissions calculation tool based on the COPERT 4 methodology has been developed, which enables the calculation of evaporative emissions from the entire European vehicle fleet (ALL) and thus the assessment of the contribution of diesel vehicles to total evaporative emissions.
The aim of this project is to update and further improve the transport model TREMOVE with the latest available data (vehicle stock, fuel prices, taxation, mileages, v-km, p-km, t-km, …) and provide new baseline scenarios that would be in line with the involvement of TREMOVE in different projects (iTREN-2030 and EC4MACS).
Existing emission factors and methodologies included in COPERT will be reviewed and those in need of revision and/or validation will be identified. An experimental campaign will be set-up, in order to address the identified priorities in methodology and emission factor improvements. A calculation tool to collect and screen the measured data from the experimental campaign will then be developed. The calculation tool will include a methodology, which will be used to convert the collected data into useful emission factors and will be applied to develop relevant emission factors from a case-study.
The aim of the project was to assess the evolution of the road transport stock, assuming different costs for the technology options foreseen to reduce CO2 emissions from passenger cars. Αn updated baseline of the TREMOVE model version 2.52 has been prepared in order to incorporate the latest fuel prices for the EU countries. The scenarios considered differed on the expected CO2 reductions from different technologies, the extent of penetration of new technologies and the corresponding additional costs to be applied on diesel and gasoline passenger cars for all countries.
In order to assess the environmental performance of vehicles equipped with the 'Clear Box', an emissions calculation tool based on the COPERT 4 software has been developed. Detailed trip and parking information in a high temporal resolution are used to calculate the pollutant and CO2 emissions and fuel consumption per vehicle and per trip. Emission results from vehicles equipped with PEMS (Portable Emissions Measurement Systems) were utilised for the validation of the demonstrator.
The aim of this exercise was to assess the impact of possible revision of the minimum levels of taxation for motor fuels to take into account their energy and carbon content. The effect on activity, emissions and road transport cost of applying 2 scenarios over the baseline development was calculated. The scenarios were determined by the European Commissions, were provided to the study team and were executed with TREMOVE version 2.52.
A Graphical User Interface was developed as a MS Windows software tool to simplify and automate the use of the TREMOVE model. The TREMOVE GUI provides the user with an interface to create scenarios with the TREMOVE model and execute them. It provides a link between the input and output data and means to filter and export them from the TREMOVE database to an easy-to-use MS Excel file. It also allows the user to change the input data in order to create a new TREMOVE baseline.